The following is a list of useful links to websites describing some of the projects, activities and organisations relevant to ‘Sources of Pollution’. 

The entries listed in bold and underlined have a large number of useful links.

Websites for Sources of Pollution


Website description and/or address

Air Pollution Information System

APIS is a comprehensive source of information on air pollution and the effects on habitats and species. It has been until 2004 developed in partnership by the UK conservation agencies and regulatory agencies and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. It can be interrogated by pollutant, habitat or impact.



A public/private partnership concerning contaminated land, involving stakeholders from government policy makers, regulators, industry, research organisations and technology developers. It facilitates the development of cost-effective methods of investigating and remediating contaminated land in a sustainable way.


Contaminated land

Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) website giving a broad introduction to contaminated land and impact of water environment.


Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) Project

Research project launched by Defra, the Environment Agency and the Welsh Assembly Government to establish the best ways of halting water pollution from agriculture.


Diffuse Pollution in Scotland

Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) website provides information on diffuse pollution in both rural and urban environments.

A programme of rural diffuse pollution work started in March 2010, to help deliver the objectives outlined in the river basin management plans (RBMPs) for the Scotland and Solway-Tweed river basin districts.

Diffuse pollution priority catchments have been identified by SEPA as catchments failing to meet environmental standards.

The SEPA webpage on urban diffuse pollution includes SEPA’s work on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS)

Environment Agency Nutrients, fertilisers and manures

How to identify nutrients and trace elements for land and avoid crop contamination from manure.

Environment Agency and Gov.UK websites on contaminated land

A range of reports, guidance documentation, fact sheets and web links.

European Groundwater and Contaminated Land Information System

EUGRIS is an information portal which provides research project information, technical information and information from the European Union and its Member States.



The Environmental Change Network is the UK’s long-term environmental monitoring programme established in 1992. It is designed to collect, store, analyse and interpret long-term data based on a set of key physical, chemical and biological variables which drive and respond to environmental change at a range of terrestrial and freshwater sites across the UK.

The site contains time series data on nutrient levels in rivers and lakes.


Eutrophication in coastal environments

Brief outline on the effects of high nutrient status on coastal waters


FACE is a charity with 50 member organisations, all of whom have a commitment to educational work associated with food, farming and the countryside.

The FACE website ( is a useful portal to sources of information about farming and the countryside.

UK Agriculture ( also promotes understanding of farming, the UK countryside and good practice.

Farming and Wildlife Advisory Group (FWAG)

FWAG provided farmers, landowners and its other clients with advice for environmental gain through cost-effective, quality solutions.

FWAG went into administration in November 2011.

Some regional groups are continuing to provide a valuable services and advice.

Farm waste management in Northern Ireland

Website presented by the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Northern Ireland with information on farm waste management, Nitrate Vulnerable Zones, agri-environment schemes and similar.

Fish farming

Chapter 6 of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution report ’Turning the Tide’ on the Environmental Effects of Marine Fisheries considers what the environmental impacts of aquaculture are and how they can be minimised.


Global Nitrogen Enrichment (GANE)

This was a Natural Environment Research Council Research programme designed to tackle some of the key questions concerning the transformation and pathways of reactive nitrogen, the major problem of quantifying nitrogen fluxes and impacts on N-sensitive semi-natural ecosystems, coastal waters and the atmosphere.

The project ran from 1999 to 2005.


Good ecological status in relation to nitrogen and phosphorus

A report on a study to determine the likely scale of changes to agriculture that would be required to achieve good ecological status.

Guidance specifying management measures for non-point sources of pollution


US EPA websites detailing measures to reduce pollution from agriculture and non-point sources in general, and dealing with the particular problem of non-point sources.

Agriculture: (

Non-point sources in general:



Inland water quality and use

Statistics on water quality and resources for the UK



Industrial and urban pollution of groundwater

Contamination from industrial activities, mining and landfills and possible remediation methods are outlined in a pdf document at the Groundwater Forum website: 

Integrated Farm Management

Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm system providing efficient management by integrating beneficial natural processes into modern farming techniques and ensures that high standards of stewardship and environmental care are practised.

Linking Environment And Farming (LEAF) was set up in 1991 by farmers, environmentalists, food and agricultural organisations, consumers, government and academics to do something positive for the farming industry and the environment. The LEAF audit is a key decision support tool. There are LEAF demonstration farms throughout the country where you can see IFM in practice.


Landfill sites facts and figures from the Environment Agency

and search maps at ‘What’s in your backyard’:

Lowland Catchment Research (LOCAR)

This was a Natural Environment Research Council Research programme which undertook detailed, interdisciplinary, integrated hydro-environmental research relating to the storage-discharge cycle and groundwater-dominated aquatic habitats in three flagship catchments: the Frome/Piddle in Dorset, the Pang/Lambourn in Berkshire, and the Tern in Shropshire.

LOCAR provided the science required to support current and future management needs for permeable lowland catchments through an integrated and multidisciplinary experimental and modelling programme.

LOCAR water management website

Minimising water pollution from agriculture

Defra farming website which contains information on how pollution from agriculture occurs, advice on how to manage animal wastes and farm nutrient planning.

The Defra Policy paper 2010 to 2015 government policy: water quality includes Appendix 3: reducing and controlling agricultural pollution.


Minimising Phosphorus losses from agriculture

This website is run by the Southern Extension-Research Activity (SERA-17), a network of universities, research organisations and agriculturalists in the USA. It contains some useful publications and information.

National Ammonia Monitoring Network

A network of 95 sites has been established to monitor atmospheric ammonia and ammonium content across the UK. This helps to determine the effectiveness of policies to reduce ammonia emissions.

Nutrients in rivers

Environment Agency’s information on concentrations of phosphates and nitrates in rivers England and Wales.

The latest information on phosphate and nitrate concentrations in rivers in England and Wales is available on the GOV.UK website:

DA3N and P Levels in Rivers (February 2012)

OAERRE project

OAERRE aims to understand the physical, biogeochemical and biological processes, and their interactions, involved in eutrophication in coastal marine Regions of Restricted Exchange (RREs), especially lagoons and fjords. The scientific issues addressed include the controls on horizontal and vertical exchange in RREs and the response of coastal ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. The project ran from July 2000 to June 2003.


Phosphate recovery from animal wastes and wastewater

Information on the CIWEM website:

Reducing nitrate pollution from agriculture

Web pages giving details on actions to reduce agricultural nitrate pollution.

Scottish Agricultural Pollution Group

The Scottish Agricultural Pollution Group (SAPG) comprises representatives of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department (SEERAD), the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), the Scottish Agricultural College (SAC) and the National Farmers' Union (Scotland) (NFUS). The SAPG has the responsibility for the content of the PEPFAA Code (Prevention of Environmental Pollution from Agricultural Activity), and for its revision. The PEPFAA Code provides practical guidance for farmers, to help minimise the risk of causing environmental pollution through farming activities

Stormwater runoff

This website from the USA offers a range of best practice guidance documents on managing stormwater in urban and agricultural situations.


Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS)

Environment Agency introduction to SUDS.

CIWEM introduction to SUDS.


Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Network

UK-wide network for researchers, practitioners, agencies, developers and others interested in SUDS.



Susdrain is the Construction Industries Research and Information Association’s (CIRIA) Community for Sustainable Drainage. It provides a range of resources for sharing information on the delivery of sustainable drainage.


Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management

This World Health Organisation report examines the need to protect drinking water, recreational waters and other water supplies from contamination by the toxic blue-green algae, cyanobacteria and to control their impact on health. It discusses the nature of toxic cyanobacteria, their consequences for public health, and methods for the assessment, management, investigation and treatment of contaminated water supplies.



This project is funded by Defra and NERC. It looks at causes of eutrophication and acidification in terrestrial ecosystems by investigating the impacts of nitrogen deposition, caused by the air pollutants ammonia and nitrogen oxides, on semi-natural ecosystems. It aims to demonstrate the impacts of these air pollutants on sensitive habitats, and to develop models and tools to assist the policymaker in understanding what more needs to be done to reduce the adverse effects.


Water quality and river classification schemes in Scotland

River, estuarine and coastal classification schemes and data.


Information for Schools


Website description and/or address

UK Rivers Network

The ‘Introduction to Water pollution’ Section looks at causes and effects of water pollution.


The ‘Finding out about water pollution’ section is no longer updated but may still be useful.


The UK Rivers Network also recommends the following website:

United States Environmental Protection Agency

The’ Water: Polluted runoff’ section of the EPA website includes information and activities for non-point pollution.



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